Grammar Notes: Los mandatos (INFORMAL COMMANDS)
There are 2 different types of commands, affirmative and negative. Affirmative is when you are telling someone to do something and negative is when you are telling someone NOT to do something.
We only talked about giving commands to someone that you know. (a little brother or sister, for example)
For the affirmative commands you simply use the �l/ella form of the present tense. If there is a pronoun to add to it- you tack it on the end and add an accent mark at the beginning of the verb.
Habla- talk H�blame- talk to me
Come- eat C�mela- eat it (the fruit)
For the negative commands you use the word NO first then add the pronoun if there are any, then you have the verb. The verbs ending changes!! -ar verbs change to -es and the -er/ -ir verbs change to -as
No hables- Don't talk No me hables- Don't talk to me.
No comas- Don't eat No lo comas- Don't eat it (chocolate).
If there is a verb that ends in -car it changes to maintain the "k" sound:
tocar: No me toques. - Don't touch me.
If there is a verb that ends in -gar it changes to maintain the "g" sound:
llegar (to arrive) No llegues tarde.- Don't arrive late.
If there is a verb that ends in -zar it changes to maintain the "s" sound.
almorzar (to eat lunch) No almuerces ahora- Don't eat lunch now.
There are some irregulars:
Infinitive Affirmative Negative
hacer-to do haz no hagas
ir-to go ve no vayas
poner-to put pon no pongas
salir-to leave sal no salgas
ser-to be s� no seas
tener-to have ten no tengas
venir- to come ven no vengas
(Add on for Spanish III)
FORMAL COMMANDS- use these when commanding someone that you need to show respect to (a teacher, waiter, older person)
Affirmative and negative show the same use except that they do follow the above rules for placing pronouns:
H�bleme- talk to me No me hable- don't talk to me
Coma-eat No coma-don't eat
For irregluars you keep the same irregular that you would have used in the negative form.
H�galo-do it No lo haga- Don't do it.
Venga-Come No venga- Don't come
V�yase- go away No se vaya- Don't go
FORMAL PLURAL COMMANDS
When telling a group of people to do something you simply add an -n to the end:
Esc�chenme- listen to me No hablen- Don't talk
V�yanse- come No se vayan- Don't come
Miren- look/watch No miren- don't look
Coman-Eat No coman- don't eat
Abran- open No abran- don't open
Add direct and indirect object pronouns to the end of affirmative commands:
D�melo-tell it to me
Add direct and indirect object pronouns before negative commands but after the NO:
No me lo digas- Don't tell it to me.